battle of shanghai 1932

The beginning of full-scale war meant that China would no longer stand idly and allow Japan to conquer its territories piece by piece as it had done in the past. Western nations had been paying little attention to China's plight since they were preoccupied with the situation in Europe. On March 2, the 19th Route Army issued a telegram stating that it was necessary to withdraw from Shanghai due to lack of supplies and manpower. Japanese planes would also accompany the infantry and strafe Chinese reinforcements. Overall, even though Chinese losses were irreparable, the strategy of trading "space for time" proved its worth. It was not unheard of for the Chinese to lose an entire garrison to such bombardments. Subsequently, the number of Japanese troops was increased to nearly 90,000 with the arrival of the 9th Infantry Division and the IJA 24th Mixed Brigade, supported by 80 warships and 300 airplanes. On March 6, the Chinese unilaterally agreed to stop fighting, although the Japanese rejected the ceasefire. [30], The heavy casualties inflicted on Chiang's own military strength forced him to rely more on non-Whampoa generals, who commanded the provincial armies and many of whom had questionable loyalty to Chiang. NOTE- film that matches photo on this page starts at 06:33 and Total run time = 10:20, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=January_28_incident&oldid=990113311, Articles containing simplified Chinese-language text, Articles containing traditional Chinese-language text, Articles needing additional references from January 2020, All articles needing additional references, Shanghai articles missing geocoordinate data, Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, This page was last edited on 22 November 2020, at 22:02. The Chinese insisted that the Japanese demand of a unilateral Chinese withdrawal was unacceptable since the two countries were already fighting a war in North China. However, at midnight on January 28, Japanese carrier aircraft bombed Shanghai in the first major aircraft carrier action in East Asia. The Japanese issued an ultimatum to the Shanghai Municipal Council demanding public condemnation and monetary compensation by the Chinese for any Japanese property damaged in the monk incident, and demanding that the Chinese government take active steps to suppress further anti-Japanese protests in the city. Japanese Special Naval Landing Forces using mortars in the ruins of a building, Shanghai, 1932. The battered Chinese troops, who had just emerged from the bloodbath in Shanghai and were hoping to enter the defense lines, found that they were not able to utilize these fortifications. Editorial Usage ? After the Japanese had successfully landed at Baoshan, on the southern bank of the Yangtze, they failed to follow up this success with further gains. The Chinese army was fighting with the last of its strength and the frontline was on the verge of collapse. Meanwhile, the 87th Division broke through Japanese lines at Yangshupu, and pushed onto the Hueishan docks along with the 36th Division. He took part in the Battle of Shanghai (1932), defending the city against the Japanese Empire. Japanese landings in northeast Shanghai suburban areas meant that many Chinese troops, who were deployed in Shanghai's urban center, had to be redeployed to the coastal regions to counter the landings. Jinshanwei was only forty kilometers away from the banks of Suzhou River where the Chinese troops had just retreated from the fall of Dachang. The successful defense of Luodian was strategically paramount to the security of Suzhou and Shanghai; as early as August 29, German adviser Alexander von Falkenhausen had told Chiang Kai-shek that the town must be held at all costs. Chiang Kai-shek ordered the remaining troops of the 98th Division to defend the town. Média dans la catégorie « Battle of Shanghai (1932) » Cette catégorie comprend 6 fichiers, dont les 6 ci-dessous. But the second battle of Shanghai proved a grim bloodletting for the Chinese, with some of their mostly highly trained units being devastated. The first Japanese attack occurred after the seizure of Manchuria (1932). The situation in Baoshan was grim, as the Japanese had surrounded the town on September 5. Japanese troops land at Shanghai - This high-quality Rights Managed stock shot in HD from the Battle of Shanghai / Second Sino-Japanese War / China / 1931 - 1932 stock footage collection is ready for instant licensing and customized download. Japanese artillery strikes reduced the town to rubble, and Yao was killed in house-to-house fighting. While negotiations were going on, intermittent fighting continued in both outlying areas and the city itself.[10]. By this time, the Japanese had increased troop strength in the Shanghai region to more than two hundred thousand. By January 27, the Japanese military had already concentrated some 30 ships, 40 airplanes and nearly 7,000 troops around the shoreline of Shanghai to put down any resistance in the event that violence broke out. In Japan it is known as the first Shanghai incident, alluding to the second Shanghai incident, which is the Japanese name for the Battle of Shanghai that occurred during the opening stages of the Second Sino-Japanese War in 1937. On August 14, the Chinese began a major offensive, an attack that was designed to push the Japanese into the Whangpoo River. Thus, it was impossible for China to sustain an air war with Japan, however, the Chinese Air Force were given a much-needed lifeline with many new replacement fighter aircraft under the new Sino-Soviet Treaty as the initial inventory of American-made aircraft were gradually lost through attrition. 1 Feb 1932. For further information about him, check the set 'China, German Military Adviser'. On August 23, the SEF, led by Iwane Matsui, landed in Liuhe, Wusong (吳淞), and Chuanshakou. The battle can be divided into three stages, and eventually involved nearly one million troops. Three thousand Japanese troops attacked targets, such as the Shanghai North railway station, around the city and began an invasion of the de facto Japanese settlement in Hongkew and other areas north of Suzhou Creek. However, Yao ordered his men to defend to the death. THE BATTLE OF SHANGHAI 28 JANUARY - 3 MARCH 1932 | Imperial War Museums Do you have 5 minutes to help us improve our website? While the Chinese almost succeeded in pushing the Japanese down the Huangpu River, the casualty rate was exceedingly high. In essence, Chiang Kai-shek's concerted pre-war effort to build a truly effective, modernized, national army was greatly devastated by the sacrifices made in the Battle of Shanghai. Ayant déclenché la guerre en juillet, l'Empire du Japon souhaitait conclure la guerre aussi rapidement que possible. The guard stopped him again and Oyama shot and killed the guard. On August 22, the tanks of the 36th Division reached the docks, but were not able to hold the position for long. Chinese troops could only advance, under the cover of machine gun fire, by getting close enough to the emplacements to kill those within with hand grenades. The Chinese then staged a final counteroffensive in an attempt to fully consolidate Chinese positions around Dachang and retake the banks of the Yunzaobin River. On January 18, five Japanese Buddhist monks, members of an ardently nationalist sect, shouted anti-Chinese slogans, and were beaten near Shanghai's Sanyou Factory (simplified Chinese: 三友实业社; traditional Chinese: 三友實業社; pinyin: Sānyǒu Shíyèshè) by agitated Chinese civilians. The rest of the Chinese troops crossed the Suzhou Creek and regrouped to engage the Japanese troops. These conflicts finally escalated in July 1937, when the Marco Polo Bridge Incident triggered the full advance from Japan. They paid heavily for the defense. Photo used by P. R. Dept. The frontline fighter aircraft of the Chinese Air Force at the beginning of full-scale hostilities consisted primarily of Curtiss Hawk IIs and Hawk IIIs (many license-built at the CAMCO plant at the Jianqiao Airbase) and the Boeing P-26 Model 281 Peashooter. As early as October 12, the Japanese chiefs of staff had already formulated plans to force a landing in Jinshanwei (金山衛), a town located on the northern bank of Hangzhou Bay, south of the Shanghai region. For the 1932 Japanese attack on Shanghai, see January 28 incident. By the end of September, the Chinese had been almost bled dry and were forced to give up Luodian. The 9th, 13th, and 101st Divisions, the 5th Heavy Artillery Brigade, and a brigade-strength mixture of smaller units were ordered from Japan to Shanghai by Imperial General Headquarters on 11 September 1937.[26]. While the western powers were in session to mediate the situation, the Chinese troops were making their final stand in Shanghai and had all hopes for a western intervention that would save China from collapse. On February 12, American, British and French representatives brokered a half-day cease fire for humanitarian relief to civilians caught in the crossfire. The military's justification was that it had to defend its concession and citizens. Throughout this period, the Chinese 19th Route Army had been massing outside the city, causing consternation to the civil Chinese administration of Shanghai and the foreign-run concessions. Because Shanghai was the most important Chinese city in western eyes, the troops had to fight and hold on to the city as long as possible, rather than moving toward the defense lines along nameless towns en route to Nanjing. The failure of the initial Chinese offensive greatly dismayed Chiang Kai-shek and his staff. Read Wikipedia in Modernized UI. The Battle of Shanghai was over. The few troops who did manage to keep up with the tanks through the city blocks were then trapped by Japanese blockades and annihilated by flamethrowers and intense machine gun fire. He was a member On August 23, the Japanese began the bombing campaign over Nanjing, and various cities in Central China. was a corps-level ad hoc Japanese army in the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Battle of Shanghai, also called the Battle of Songhu, was the first major battle between the Chinese National Republican Army and the Imperial Japanese Army during the Second Sino-Japanese war in 1937. Battle of Shanghai (1937) - One of The Largest and Bloodiest Battles of The Second Sino-Japanese War - China culture Shanghai was the first major urban battle, and the first long, large scale conflict of attrition in the Second World War. Since the Nine-Power Treaty was signed as a result of the Washington Naval Conference of 1922, the opening of the Conference automatically brought the United States into the effort to rein in Japanese aggression. Shanghai remained in Japanese hands until the final Japanese capitulation in August 1945. Battle of Shanghai Close combat in the city of Shanghai. By then, Chinese troops had no option but to withdraw from downtown Shanghai, which they had held for almost three months. The Chinese deployed three tank battalions in the battle and its immediate aftermath. It was not able to produce any planes of its own to replace those lost in combat and was always running low on replacement parts and supplies. The Chinese are no strangers to the military might of Japan. After the ceasefire was brokered, the 19th Army was reassigned by Chiang Kai-shek to suppress the Chinese Communist insurrection in Fujian. The perceived strength of the Chinese response resulted in major reinforcement for Japanese units. Japanese troops also invaded the town of Liuhang (劉行), south of Luodian. Japan attacked Shanghai in 1932, and again in 1937. In the interval the Japanese had learned from their mistakes and rewritten their own procedures for amphibious landings. The Chinese concentrated some 300,000 soldiers there, while the Japanese amassed more than 100,000 troops, supported by naval gunfire, tanks, and aircraft. On February 28, after a week of fierce fighting characterized by the stubborn resistance of the Cantonese troops, the Japanese, supported by superior artillery, took the village of Kiangwan (now Jiangwanzhen), north of Shanghai. Japan had been making attempts into Chinese territory since 1932. Login with Facebook The Chinese army was at its limit of endurance. On September 11, with the fall of Baoshan, the Chinese Army moved into defensive positions around the small town of Luodian (羅店), the transportation center connecting Baoshan, downtown Shanghai, Jiading, Songjiang and several other towns with highways. The second battle was a Japanese victory that opened the Yangtze River valley to the Japanese. Photo courtesy of the Lt Col Mike Manifor Collection Marines behind a sandbag wall facing the creek The Battle of Shanghai had officially begun. During the fierce three-month battle, Chinese and Japanese troops fought in downtown Shanghai, in the outlying towns, and on the beaches of the Yangtze River and Hangzhou Bay, where the Japanese had made amphibious landings. Credit: The Virginia McCarthy and Lawrence W. Mayer collection of photographs from Isabel Ingram Mayer and Col. William Mayer. [9] In the end, Shanghai fell, and China lost a significant portion of its best troops, while also failing to elicit any international intervention. [9], On March 4, the League of Nations passed a resolution demanding a ceasefire, though sporadic fighting persisted. The Battle of Shanghai was the first of the twenty-two major engagements fought between the National Revolutionary Army (NRA) of the Republic of China (ROC) and the Imperial Japanese Army (IJA) of the Empire of Japan at the beginning of the Second Sino-Japanese War. At the beginning of the battle, Zhang Zhizhong, as the commander of the 5th Army and the Nanjing-Shanghai war zone, was responsible for conducting Chinese operations. During the afternoon of January 28, the Shanghai Municipal Council agreed to these demands. By: TheArchivalCollection. On May 5, China and Japan signed the Shanghai Ceasefire Agreement (simplified Chinese: 淞沪停战协定; traditional Chinese: 淞滬停戰協定; pinyin: Sōnghù Tíngzhàn Xiédìng). [23] The bombing was not an intended attack on the International Settlement: the four errant bombs were intended for the Japanese cruiser Izumo, which was moored nearby in the Whangpoo (Huangpu) river, adjacent to the Bund. Battle of Shanghai 1937 battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War. Chen Mingshu (171 words) exact match in snippet view article find links to article Chiang Kai-shek stepped down in December 1931. The hostility from the Chinese that was escalating since Japan's conquest of Manchuria in 1932 and the resentment towards the puppet Manchukuo regime, led the two countries into another war in central China. The seaplane tender Notoro launched several of her seaplanes to drop flares in order to frighten Chinese civilians and troops during the advance of … As the Japanese came closer to Nanjing, the fighting grew in both frequency and severity.[27]. The Shanghai Expeditionary Army (上海派遣軍, Shanhai-haken-gun?) The Chinese would then emerge from rear positions to engage the enemy when the Japanese land offensive started after naval and artillery strikes had ceased. [20][21] While the Chinese pilots were instructed not to fly over the Shanghai International Settlement, the Japanese flagship was berthed right in front of it in what may amount to using the civilian enclave as human shield; 700-950 Chinese and foreign civilians were killed outright,[20][21][22] with a total of 3,000 of civilian deaths and injuries resulting from the accidental release of the bombs, with most of the death occurring at the Great World entertainment centre, where civilian refugees had gathered after fleeing from the fighting. Zhang Zhizhong's initial plan was to have the numerically superior Chinese forces attack the Japanese by surprise and push them into the Huangpu River, then blockade the coast to deny the Japanese the opportunity to land reinforcements at the Huangpu wharves between Yangshupu and Hongkou. In addition, most western nations had little prospect that their intervention would help China in the long run because they believed that China would eventually lose. On the other hand, Chinese citizens feverishly welcomed the presence of Chinese troops in the city. Zhang was also criticized for his overconfidence and his penchant for holding press conferences for both foreign and Chinese reporters in the cosmopolitan city. They almost succeeded. 36th staff officer Xiong Xinmin saw a Chinese suicide bomber stop a Japanese tank column by exploding himself beneath the lead tank.[13]. By mid-October, the Chinese situation in Shanghai had become increasingly dire and the Japanese had made significant gains. In addition, on October 5, President Franklin D. Roosevelt gave the Quarantine Speech, calling for the United States to help nations fight against aggressor nations. After that, there is additional 18,761 casualties for the 9th division alone before December 1); however, this figure does not include the sick, the repatriated and those who died because of injuries[2][3][4] They tried to protect important industries by removing them from the capital and into the interior China. In his correspondence with Hu Shih, Chiang wrote that China was capable of withstanding six months of combat before changes in the international situation would have to end the war. The presentation is based on unique Japanese military sources, including a full set of battle maps, a complete case study of the conflict produced for the training of Japanese officers, multiple visual documents, graphs, etc. The Chinese divisions were able to hold on to Zhabei, Jiangwan, and other downtown positions for three months, until situations in other areas made it strategically impossible to continue defending these positions. By now, the Chinese army needed between eight and twelve divisions to match the fighting strength of just one Japanese division. Starting the night of October 26, the Chinese began withdrawing from Shanghai urban center. However, the Chinese would reinforce almost immediately to counter the Japanese troops who had just made their landing after the bombardment. Chiang Kai-shek had expected these coastal towns to be vulnerable to Japanese landings and ordered Chen Cheng to reinforce the area with the 18th Army. Footage / nature / 1932-Battle Of Shanghai / Second Sino-Japanese War / China / 1931 - 1932. Two exploded in Nanking Road and two in front of the Great World Amusement Centre on Avenue Edward VII, killing an estimated 2,000 shoppers and passers-by. However, the counteroffensive was poorly coordinated and again the Chinese succumbed to superior Japanese firepower. You are here: Shanghai > 1932 | Login. On November 22, the leadership of the 19th Route Army revolted against the Kuomintang government, and established the Fujian People's Government, independent of the Republic of China. This conflict between the two nations developed into a full-scale war known as the Second Sino-Japanese war. No need to register, buy now! In his memoir, General Li Zongren pointed out that Chiang's staff had proposed that the Chinese army reserve around ten divisions along the Wufu Line to protect Nanjing and felt it made no difference if Shanghai could be held for a few months longer at the expense of huge casualties. Access to Hongqiao Airport was a violation of the terms agreed by China and Japan under the terms of the ceasefire signed in 1932. Chen Mingshu (171 words) exact match in snippet view article find links to article Chiang Kai-shek stepped down in December 1931. The Battle of Shanghai, more known as the 28 Janaury Incident or the Shanghai Incident (January 28 – March 3, 1932) and also known as the Battle of Stalingrad on the Yangtze, was a battle of the Second Sino-Japanese War between the Republic of China and the Empire of Japan, fought in the city of Shanghai, Republic of China. As the Chinese forces began to withdraw from the Shanghai area, more Japanese troops began to land near Shanghai, inflicting heavy casualties on the Chinese side. Battle of Changsha (September 17, 1939 – October 6, 1939) was the first of four attempts by Japan to take the city of Changsha (長沙市), Hunan (湖南省), during the second Sino-Japanese War.It was the first major battle of the war to fall within the time frame of what is widely considered World War II. The Japanese almost always began their amphibious assaults with heavy naval and air bombardment of the Chinese coastal defense works and trenches. In October, the SEF was reinforced by the Japanese 10th Army commanded by Lieutenant General Heisuke Yanagawa. He took part in the Battle of Shanghai (1932), defending the city against the Japanese Empire. Search WW2DB & Partner Sites. The second stage lasted from August 23 to October 26, 1937, during which the Japanese launched amphibious landings on the Jiangsu coast and the two armies fought a Stalingrad-type house-to-house battle, with the Japanese attempting to gain control of the city and the surrounding regions. However, the Chinese fought against great odds and tried to hold on to the coastal villages as long as they could. On August 22, the Japanese 3rd, 8th, and 11th Divisions made an amphibious assault under the cover of naval bombardment and proceeded to land in Chuanshakou (川沙口), Shizilin (獅子林), and Baoshan (寶山), towns on the northeast coast some fifty kilometers (31 miles) away from downtown Shanghai. Thus, the front line was lengthened from metropolitan Shanghai along the Huangpu River to the northeast coastal districts. Office of the Chief Signal Officer. Barbara W. Tuchman described this as also being "the first terror bombing of a civilian population of an era that was to become familiar with it",[6] preceding the Condor Legion's bombing of Guernica by five years. The incident heightened the tensions between the Chinese and Japanese forces in Shanghai. However, the situation was bleak. Shanghai was China's principal port and its location close to the capital of Peiking made it stategically the most important city in China. Japan attacked Shanghai in 1932, and again in 1937. For the 1932 Japanese attack on Shanghai, see, Japanese landing (23 August – 10 September), Combat around Luodian (11 September – 30 September), Battle for Dachang (1 October – 26 October), Learn how and when to remove this template message, Order of battle of the Battle of Shanghai, atomic bombs were dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki, "Shanghai 1937 – Where World War II Began", "Articles published during wartime by former Domei News Agency released online in free-to-access archive", http://surfcity.kund.dalnet.se/china_wong1.htm, https://air.mnd.gov.tw/EN/PastCurrent/PastCurrent_Detail.aspx?FID=28&CID=176&ID=1327, "Japanese Cruiser Sails. They aimed their defenses at Shanghai to buy time to move their industries and make allies of the Western powers. 1931-34 China Incident War Medal-002.JPG 1 212 × 1 616 ; 377 Kio. On October 1, on advice from his commanders, Japanese Prime Minister Fumimaro Konoe decided to integrate the North China and Central China Theaters and launch an October offensive to subjugate the Chinese government and end the war. total run time = 10:20, https://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Battle_of_Shanghai&oldid=992287624, Wikipedia articles needing clarification from September 2010, Articles containing Japanese-language text, Articles needing additional references from October 2018, All articles needing additional references, Articles with unsourced statements from October 2017, Articles with unsourced statements from November 2017, Articles with French-language sources (fr), Articles with Italian-language sources (it), Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike License, Japanese capture of Shanghai (excluding the, * Van de Ven, Hans, "The Battle of Shanghai," Ch. Historical Map of East Asia and the Western Pacific (23 August 1937 - Battle of Shanghai: For the month following the Marco Polo Bridge Incident, it appeared fighting between Japan and China would be restricted to the north. For the 1932 Japanese attack on Shanghai, see January 28 incident. (Ienaga-The Pacific War, p.65). However, the Japanese military planned to increase Japanese influence further, especially into Shanghai where Japan, along with the various western powers, had extraterritorial rights. The Chinese raced against time to construct and repair these defense works despite constant Japanese bombardment. On the 29th of September 1937, agreement was reached between the commander of the 2nd Rengo Ku and the Shanghai Expeditionary Force on a policy for co-operation, with the details worked out the following day. On October 30, the Japanese crossed Suzhou River and the Chinese troops were in danger of encirclement. On October 28, Chiang arrived in the battlefield to boost the morale of his troops. As a result, the lack of Chinese defenses allowed the Japanese 10th Army Corps, composed of units diverted from the Battle of Taiyuan in the North China Theater, to land easily in Jinshanwei on November 5. Prove impossible for the Chinese would continue to sustain this level of throughout., causing 1,000 deaths, most of which were civilian Nations arrived at Shanghai to buy time to move industries! The gate 3rd battalion had 10 Panzer I light tanks, 20 CV35 tankettes and! By Josef von Sternberg a woman rediscovers a former lover during a dangerous train ride to Shanghai move their and. Within the city some 6-ton Vickers Mark E tanks Dachang operation and the 5th army retreated the! Seemed imminent Pearl Harbor Ingram Mayer and Col. William Mayer capability of less than two hundred.... Desperate counterattack from 1 March, but were unable to keep only a small police within... 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